In simple terms, injury is tissue damage. This chapter focuses on damage involving muscle tissue, connective tissue, veins, arteries, and nervous tissue caused by physical trauma. Topic 22-1 examines the forces and mechanisms that lead to musculoskeletal injuries, while Topic 22-2 describes the stages and physiological changes that occur as tissue repairs itself. Topic 22-3 defines specific injuries, explains their causes, and provides treatment goals and treatment techniques appropriate for rehabilitative sessions. A number of related topics in other chapters support and round out this discussion. This chapter together with Chapters 19, 23, provide a foundation for therapists who wish to offer healthcare massage, work in medically oriented settings, work with athletes, or make injury and rehabilitation a cornerstone of their private practices.
acute traumatic injury
delayed-onset muscle soreness
Having read the chapter and used the related student learning tools, the student will be able to:
- Define musculoskeletal injury and outline classifications of injury types affecting structures in the musculoskeletal system.
- Identify at least three forces that load soft-tissue structures.
- Define the terms stress, strain, and deformation as they apply to tissue load.
- Describe four risk factors that increase the potential for injury.
- Explain the term compensation pattern and describe one method a massage therapist would use to treat a compensation pattern.
- State the signs and symptoms of acute inflammation, and explain the causes of each.
- Distinguish among the massage treatment goals and techniques for the acute stage, repair stage, and maturation stage of the inflammatory response.
- Explain two reasons why an injury site might enter a chronic inflammatory process.
- Describe the similarities between the massage treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome and thoracic outlet syndrome.
- List three massage techniques that could be used with a muscle strain in the maturation phase of the inflammatory response.
- Outline a treatment plan for an ankle sprain in the acute stage of the inflammatory process.